Religions morals and civilization essay
Could civilization be separate from religion
Self-love gives no opposition. Disputes about political authority in the period after Mohammad's death led to the split between Sunnis and Shiites. Neither is the author of the treatise upon human nature more successful, when he endeavours to resolve the moral sense into pure sympathy. This leads to a speculation, perhaps one of the most curious that belongs to human nature. The moral code must be collective and opposed upon the entire community of all ranks. His idea was that we have within us this separate capacity to recognize divine command and to be drawn towards it out of a sense of dependence on the God who prescribes the command to us, and will punish us if we disobey though our motive should not be to avoid punishment Ibid. The Spaniards in Mexico and Peru used to baptize Indian infants and then immediately dash their brains out: by this means they secured that these infants went to Heaven. But on the other hand, the distaste for over-arching theory means that religious meta-narratives are suspect to the same degree as any other, and the hospitality is more likely to be towards bits and pieces of traditional theology than to any theological system as a whole.
The metaphysical solution was to bring in a god who desires the greatest total good of all living things, and who will reward and punish in accordance with this desire. He did not accept the three traditional theoretical arguments for the existence of God though he was sympathetic to a modest version of the teleological argument.
Levinas studied under Husserl, and knew Heidegger, whose work he first embraced and then rejected.
Women cannot enjoy a tolerable position in society where it is considered of the utmost importance that they should not infringe a very rigid moral code. They allow not of torture; alledging it better to leave a crime unpunished, than to expose an innocent person to those torments authorised in other Christian countries to extort a confession from the guilty.
Is religion necessary in a civilization
It is tempting to simplify this contrast by saying that the Greeks favor the good, in their account of the relation of morality and religion, and the Judeo-Christian account favors the right or obligation. The second precept is that each of us should be willing to lay down our natural rights to everything to the extent that others are also willing, and Hobbes concludes with the need to subordinate ourselves to a sovereign who alone will be able to secure peace. To return to Britain, Hume had a number of successors who accepted the view which Hume took from Hutcheson that our fundamental obligation is to work for the greatest happiness of the greatest number. In the Western church, Augustine — emphasized the gap between the world we are in as resident aliens and our citizenship in the heavenly Jerusalem, and even in our next life the distance between ourselves and God. Contrary to what is generally understood, the foregoing speculation affords a palpable proof, that even self-love does not always operate to avoid pain and distress. The Stoics likewise tied the best kind of human life, for them the life of the sage, to being like the divine. A secret charm attaches us to representations of this nature, at the very time our heart, full of anguish, rises up against its proper pleasure. To a dry philosopher, unacquainted with theatrical entertainments, it Edition: current; Page:  may appear surprising, that imitation should have such an effect upon the mind, and that the want of truth and reality should not prevent the operation of our passions. What is true of Christianity is equally true of Buddhism.
Self-love is a strong motive to search about for every thing that may contribute to happiness. This conception is also pervasive in Aristotle —22Plato's student for twenty years.
Could a civilization be separated from religion essay
This view is nearly extinct in the treatment of children, but it survives in the criminal law. And it may be observed by the bye, that such spectacles have an admirable good effect in training up the youth to boldness and resolution. Protagoras is not correctly seen here as skeptical about morality or religion. Within Sunni Muslim ethical theory in the Middle Ages two major alternative ways developed of thinking about the relation between morality and religion. Objects of distress raise no aversion in us, though they give us pain. We could also secure that the world's population should be stationary if we were not prevented by the political influence of churches which prefer war, pestilence, and famine to contraception. The conception of Sin which is bound up with Christian ethics is one that does an extraordinary amount of harm, since it affords people an outlet for their sadism which they believe to be legitimate, and even noble. The natural impulse of the vigorous person of decent character is to attempt to do good, but if he is deprived of all political power and of all opportunity to influence events, he will be deflected from his natural course and will decide that the important thing is to be good. But even if it were true, it would make no difference. In examining how this is brought about, there will be discovered an admirable contrivance in human nature, to give free scope to the social affections.
But the connection of the highest human state with the divine is pervasive in the text. Were man a being whose only view, in all his actions, is either to attain pleasure, or to avoid pain; which our author lays down as a preliminary, borrowed from Mr Locke chap.
Maimonides teaches that we do indeed have some access just as human beings to the rightness and wrongness of acts; but what renders conforming to these standards obligatory is that God reveals them in special revelation.
I do not think there can be any defense for the view that knowledge is ever undesirable. Undoubtedly the most important source of religion is fear; this can be seen in the present day, since anything that causes alarm is apt to turn people's thoughts to God.
The second precept is that each of us should be willing to lay down our natural rights to everything to the extent that others are also willing, and Hobbes concludes with the need to subordinate ourselves to a sovereign who alone will be able to secure peace.
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